The e-mail administrator should try to protect users
from unsolicited commercial email (UCE). The rise in UCE has become a nuisance to many
email users today. The e-mail administrator should attempt to implement controls to
minimize the amount of UCE that is delivered to local users. This article describes
several methods that postfix provides for the e-mail administrator to filter known UCE
sites and messages.
There are several levels where you can block UCE
Postix SMTP Program
The Postfix smtpd
program is responsible for accepting SMTP connections from remote hosts and receiving
mail messages for local users. The optional access table directs the Postfix SMTP server
to selectively reject or accept mail. Access can be allowed or denied for specific host
names, domain names, networks, host network addresses or mail addresses.
Problems with the SMTP Protocol
One technique used by UCE senders to hide their identity
is to use phony addresses in the From: mail header lines. This is possible due to a
security limitation in the standrad SMTP Protocol. During a normal SMTP session, both
the HELO and the MAIL FROM: commands identify the sender. The remote host can enter
any value for these commands.
Notes on HELO, Sender and Client
- HELO/EHLO is what the sending machine *tells* your machine it is.
It is easily spoofed and frequently mis-configured. Thus it may have no basis
- Sender is the envelope-sender address (SMTP "MAIL FROM"), not the
client machine's IP address or host name, or the "From:" field in the
headers. (Though envelope-sender may well match "From:" in the headers.)
- Client is the sending machine's IP address - and possibly host
name (if there is one).
How to choose the optimal SMTPD Restriction Level ?
While it can be a good idea to restrict / reject
specific types of messages as early as possible (a helo based restriction in the
smtpd_helo_restrictions section), by placing all of the restrictions into the
smtpd_recipient_restrictions, you will be able to
accumulate as much information about the attempted spam as possible, as well as order
all of the restrictions to better allow you to prevent spam - therefore we suggest to
leave the client, helo and sender rstriction level empty.
If you were to reject at smtpd_client_restrictions, then you would not be able to
determine the helo, sender, and recipient information, which could help improve the
SMTPD Client Restrictions
SMTPD client restrictions will put restrictions on what
systems will be able to send mail through your server based on the client IP and host
information (name). As restrictions are looked at in order, you will typically want to
look at filters or restrictions that are based on local information first, in order to
limit the external communications that will be initiated for each message.
Content of main.cf
Content of access_client
Compile access_client into
Test the Client Restriction
telnet rabbit 25
Connected to rabbit.
Escape character is '^]'.
220 rabbit.akadia.com ESMTP Postfix
MAIL FROM: <firstname.lastname@example.org>
RCPT TO: <email@example.com>
Client host rejected: Access denied
SMTPD HELO Restrictions
First, you will want to enforce the requirement for a helo to be sent for each
message. Without a helo, you will not be able to perform any helo checks. You can do
this by adding the following line to main.cf:
smtpd_helo_required = yes
SMTPD helo restrictions will put restrictions on what systems will be able to send
mail through your server based on the helo identification string.
SMTPD SENDER Restrictions
SMTPD sender restrictions will put restrictions on what addresses will be able to
send mail through your server based on the sender email address (MAIL FROM:)
SMTPD RECIPIENT Restrictions
SMTPD recipient restrictions will put restrictions on what messages will be accepted
into your server based on the recipient email address (RCPT TO:)
Note that all of the restrictions are in the recipient section because we like to
have as much information as possible before rejecting an email. If you were to reject
at smtpd_client_restrictions, then you would not be able to determine the helo, sender,
and recipient information, which could help improve the filters.
By placing the RBL checks at the end, we are making sure that an external DNS check
will only occur if nothing else will reject the spam message.
The trailing "permit" isn't necessary, strictly speaking, because there's an earlier
"permit_mynetworks.". We just put it there because it makes clear that whatever
passes the earlier "check" and "reject" tests will be permitted.
All of the anti-UCE checks are under smtpd_recipient_restrictions, instead of having a separate
smtpd_client_restrictions. This is because,
unless you have set smtpd_delay_reject = no
(default is "yes"), no rejecting takes place until after RCPT TO anyway. It's easier,
cleaner and more predictable when all of the anti-UCE stuff is under recipient
Getting Outside Help
RBLs (Real-time, IP Based Blacklist filtration) are most often
available via DNS, and will contain a list of IP addresses that are commonly used by
spammers, open relays, systems that are nonconformant to RFC, or whatever criteria the
people running them choose to use.
The first thing to consider when the desire to implement an RBL hits
you is who is running the filter. By using an RBL, you are intrinsically trusting the
owner/operator/admin of the RBL not to list hosts that are valid mail servers with whom
you would want to communicate, and to remove hosts from their lists who correct their
problems in a timely manner.
Each mail administrator has to make his/her own choice which RBLs are
most appropriate to their system. There are hundreds of different RBLs, and the choice
of which ones to implement can be difficult.
An RHSBL (Real-time, Domain Based Blacklist filtration) like an
RBL, is usually available via DNS, but contains a list of domain names (as opposed to
IP addresses) that can be checked against the client domain of an email, as well as the
domain portion (after the @) of the sender and recipient addresses. RHSBLs are
so-called because they are primarily meant to check the "right-hand side" of sender
Header and Body Checks
Additional to the above checks you may want to scan the Header and/or
Body of the Message for UCE Texts. Note that you cannot whitelist a sender or client
in an access list to bypass header or body checks. Header and body checks take place
whether you explicitly "OK" a client or sender, in access lists, or not.
The first thing that needs to be done is to enable header checks in
the Postfix main.cf configuration file. This will tell
postfix where to look for the header checks file.
To do this, add the following lines to main.cf:
header_checks = regexp:/etc/postfix/maps/header_checks
mime_header_checks = regexp:/etc/postfix/maps/mime_header_checks
The format for each line in the header_checks file is as follows:
/^HEADER: .*content_to_act_on/ ACTION
The HEADER listed can be any header available in an email. The
Subject header is the most popular to reject on for key words or phrases in spam
filtering, but others can be very useful as well.
/^Subject: .*Make Money Fast!/ REJECT
In the mime_header_checks
file, you will place a restriction for any file extentsons that you do not want to have
passing through your system. For example:
This will reject any messages that have attachments whose files end
in .bat, .com, .exe or .dll.
The first thing that needs to be done is to enable body checks in the
Postfix main.cf configuration file. This will tell
postfix where to look for the body checks file.
To do this, add the following line to the file:
body_checks = regexp:/etc/postfix/maps/body_checks
The format for each line in the body_checks file is as follows:
More Information about Fighting SPAM with Postfix